Blanco-Bercial, L., Bradford-Grieve, J., Bucklin, A., 2011. Molecular phylogeny of the Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 59: 103-113 (doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.01.008)

The order Calanoida includes some of the most successful planktonic groups in both marine and freshwater environments. Due to the morphological complexity of the taxonomic characters in this group, subdivision and phylogenies have been complex and problematic. This study establishes a multi-gene molecular phylogeny of the calanoid copepods based upon small (18S) and large (28S) subunits of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I genes, including 29 families from 7 superfamilies of the order. This analysis is more comprehensive than earlier studies in terms of number of families, range of molecular markers, and breadth of taxonomic levels resolved. Patterns of divergence of ribosomal RNA genes are shown to be significantly heterogeneous among superfamilies, providing a likely explanation for disparate results of previous studies. The multi-gene phylogeny recovers a monophyletic Calanoida, as well as the superfamilies Augaptiloidea, Centropagoidea, Bathypontioidea, Eucalanoidea, Spinocalanoidea and Clausocalanoidea. The phylogeny largely agrees with previously-published morphological phylogenies, including e.g., enlargement of the Bathypontioidea to include the Fosshageniidae.