Owing to its strategic geographic location in the western North Atlantic, Bermuda has been a key sampling location for numerous studies of the marine atmosphere, including continuous data on the aerosol optical depth for NASA's AERONET Program. Atmospheric measurements of various chemical species have been made on Bermuda since the mid-1970s and, in 1988, a sampling tower was erected at Tudor Hill, Southampton, as part of the Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AEROCE)--a long-term study of the atmospheric transport of aerosols and gases in the North Atlantic region.
Since March 2003, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), BIOS has been operating the Tudor Hill observatory and routinely collecting data and samples, including:
- Meteorological data (e.g., wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, etc.);
- Weekly aerosol (airborne particulate) samples;
- Weekly rainwater samples
Other routine sampling activities include:
- Baseline (background) clean-air samples for the BIOS AIr Quality Program;
- Sampling for the Global Atmosphere Passive Sampler (GAPS) Network, operated by Environment Canada to monitor persistent organic pollutants on a global scale;
- Continuous measurements of ozone concentations in the lower atmosphere and discrete sampling for greenhouse gases for NOAA's Earth Systems Research Laboratory;
- Continuous data on the aerosol optical depth for NOAA's AERONET Program;
- Continuous measurement of solar radiation as part of NOAA's Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration in the Atmosphere Measured at the BIOS Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory 1989-2013
Data shown are measurements of air collected approximately weekly in glass containers and returned to the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (GMD) for analysis. Blue circle symbols are thought to be regionally representative of a remote, well-mixed troposphere. Green "+" symbols are through to be not indicative of background conditions, and represent poorly mixed air masses influenced by local or regional anthropogenic sources or strong local biospheric sources or sinks. A smooth curve and long-term trend have been fitted to the representative measurements. All data have undergone rigorous quality assurance and are freely available from GMD, CDIAC, and WMO WDCGG.
Information for Potential Users of the Facility
All potential users of the facility must complete the Information Form for Potential Users and return it to Dr. Andrew Peters well in advance of submitting research proposals. This will then be reviewed by the Facility Steering Committee for comment and/or approval. For further information, please contact Dr. Andrew Peters.