Owing to its remote geographic location in the western North Atlantic, Bermuda has been a key sampling location for numerous studies of the marine atmosphere. Measurements of various chemicals in the atmosphere have been made on Bermuda since the mid-1970s, and in 1988 a research tower was erected at Tudor Hill, Southampton, as part of the Atmosphere-Ocean Chemistry Experiment, an international long-term study of the atmospheric transport of aerosols and gases in the North Atlantic region.
This facility is one of only a few marine atmospheric observatories that exist worldwide and provides the ability to make year-round, complex measurements of the atmosphere over the ocean without the use of a research ship or buoy mooring.
Since March 2003, with support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), BIOS has been operating the Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory as a site for research activities conducted by BIOS and visiting US and international scientists. Routine activities at the site include:
- Collection of meteorological data (e.g., wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, etc.);
- Weekly bulk aerosol (airborne particulate) sampling;
- Weekly bulk rainwater sampling.
Recent research activities at the facility have included the following collaborations:
- Princeton and Brown Universities, USA: A study of the importance of the Atlantic Ocean in the global cycling of nitrogen;
- Plymouth University, UK: The role of the marine atmosphere in the transport of trace metals;
- Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Paris, France: Measurement of the isotopic composition of water vapor in the marine environment.
Other routine sampling activities include:
- Sampling for the Global Atmosphere Passive Sampler (GAPS) Network, operated by Environment Canada to monitor persistent organic pollutants on a global scale;
- Continuous measurements of ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere for NOAA's Earth Systems Research Laboratory;
- Sampling for CO2 and other greenhouse gases for NOAA's Earth Systems Research Laboratory;
- Continuous data on air column properties, including the aerosol optical depth, for NASA’s AERONET Program.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere measured at the BIOS Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory, 1989-2013.
Data shown are measurements of air collected approximately weekly in glass containers and returned to the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (GMD) for analysis. Circle Symbols are thought to be regionally representative of a remote, well-mixed troposphere. + Symbols are thought to be not indicative of background conditions, and represent poorly mixed air masses influenced by local or regional anthropogenic sources or strong local biospheric sources or sinks. A smooth curve and long-term trend have been fitted to the representative measurements. All data have undergone rigorous quality assurance and are freely available from GMD, CDIAC, and WMO WDCGG.
The scientific productivity of the Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory has been assessed using publication metrics calculated by Google Scholar. An extensive analysis of peer-reviewed literature was undertaken to identify papers derived from: a) research work undertaken at the facility; or b) significant analysis and/or interpretation of data acquired at the facility. Publications were excluded if they only included repetition of previously published data and results without further analysis, or simply reported or acknowledged the facility. Note that this analysis is restricted to peer-reviewed publications and as such does not include or acknowledge the large contributions made to non-peer-reviewed publications or data products created by external users such as NOAA and NASA.
Since its establishment in 1988 up to the end of 2017, research conducted at the Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory has contributed significantly to the publication of at least 114 peer-reviewed papers, generating an h-index of 49 and yielding over 7,000 citations in a period of 30 years.
Over the past 15 years of NSF support (to end of 2017), research activities at the facility have generated or significantly contributed to 70 peer-reviewed publications - a mean of 4.7 papers per year - and since just 2013 the facility has established an h-index of 29.
Bibliographic data are available for download here in CSV (if using Safari as your web browser, please right click and choose "Save linked filed as"). For additional formats, including BibTeX and EndNote, please contact Andrew Peters (Andrew.Peters@bios.edu).